• Vida Widiani University of Indonesia
  • Yaslis Ilyas University of Indonesia


Air Pollution, Acute Respiratory Infections


Introduction: New data from the World Health Organization (WHO) released, shows that 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants. Updated estimations reveal an alarming death toll of 7 million people every year caused by ambient (outdoor) and household air pollution. People die every year from exposure to fine particles in polluted air that penetrate deep into the lungs and cardiovascular system, causing diseases including stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and respiratory  infections,  including  pneumonia. With  progress  in  transportation,  the increasing population of urban population and high public activity along with the ease of transportation vehicles has brought an increased number of motorized vehicles in Indonesia. This can be known from statistics based on Bada Pusat Statistik Indonesia showing an increase in motorized vehicles from the year 2000-2016, which is made up of passenger cars, bus cars, cars, and motorbikes. Very significant increase seen in number of vehicles change motorcycles as much as 105,150,082 vehicles out of a total number of 129,281,079 vehicles are there in Indonesia by the year 2016. Indonesia is included into one country in Southeast Asia that have ambient air pollution above the threshold value. On the Peraturan Pemerintah RI No. 41 Tahun 1999 set the threshold value for PM2.5 is 15 and the latest data WHO stated that Indonesia is currently at number 16.4 meaning still remains above the threshold values of PM 2.5 that has been established by the government of Indonesia. Method: The methods used in the writing of this article was a literature review a literature search both international and national which is done using the database Proquest, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Searching articles from the year 2008 to 2018 using the keyword "transport", "air pollution", "urban" and "Respiratory". Taken 15 research articles that are considered most relevant.